Zinc Deficiency
Zinc deficiency in humans results from reduced dietary
intake, inadequate absorption,  increased loss or increased
use.  The most common cause is reduced dietary intake; as
much as 25% of the world's population is at risk.  
affects about 2.2 billion people around the world.

Zinc plays an essential role in numerous biochemical
Zinc deficiency affects many organ systems,
including the skin, gastro-intestinal tract, central nervous
system & immune, skeletal & reproductive systems.  A lack
zinc has numerous manifestations, the most common of
which are an increased rates of diarrhœa, pneumonia and

Zinc deficiency can be classified as acute, as may occur
during prolonged inappropriate zinc-free total parenteral
nutrition or
chronic, as may occur in dietary deficiency or
inadequate absorption.

Zinc deficiency can also be considered as mild as typically
accompanies dietary deficiency or
severe, as typically
accompanies defective absorption.

Mouth.  Zinc deficiency can manifest as non-specific oral
ulceration, stomatitis (painful mouth) or white tongue
coating.  Rarely, it can cause
angular cheilitis (sores at the
corners of the mouth) and
burning mouth syndrome (mouth
or tongue soreness).

Smell and taste.  Severe zinc deficiency may disturb the
sense of smell and taste.

Immune system.  Impaired immune function in people with
zinc deficiency can lead to the   development of respiratory,
gastro-intestinal or other infections.  During inflammation,
there is an increased cellular demand for
zinc and impaired
zinc homeostasis from zinc deficiency is associated with
chronic inflammation.
Dietary Sources of Zinc

These include:

  • Oysters, crab, lobster and other shellfish (oysters contain more zinc per
    serving than any other food)
  • Red meat and poultry (these are the main sources of zinc for many)
  • Pulses, nuts and legumes
  • Wholegrain cereals
  • Fortified breakfast cereals
  • Dairy products such as cheese

Zinc Deficiency

Risk factors

  • Inadequate diet
  • Gastro-intestinal diseases including ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, short
    bowel syndrome and chronic diarrhœa
  • Chronic liver disease
  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Alcoholism (decreases zinc absorption and increases urinary zinc excretion)
  • Sickle cell disease
  • Diabetes
  • Pregnancy and breast-feeding
  • Vegetarian diet
  • People taking large amounts of iron supplementation (iron can interfere with
    zinc absorption)

A diet which is high in
phytate-containing whole grains, high in foods grown in zinc
deficient soil
or high in processed foods containing little or no zinc can result in
zinc deficiency.

Useful Websites:


The Nutrition Society

National Institutes of Health

Mayo Clinic

Dr Axe
Last Updated 27th October 2016