Causes of Dry Mouth
•        Atropinoids: Atropine, atropinics and hyoscine
•        Anti-depressants: tricyclics (e.g. amitriptyline,
nortriptyline, clomipramine and dosulepin), selective
serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (e.g. fluoxetine), lithium
and some other anti-depressants
Anti-hypertensives: may also cause a
compositional change in saliva.  
α1 Antagonists (e.g.
terazosin and prazosin) and  α agonists (e.g. clonidine)
may reduce salivary flow.  
β blockers (e.g. atenolol,
propranolol) reduce protein levels
•        Anti-histamines
•        Anti-reflux agents, such as proton-pump inhibitors
•        Cytotoxic drugs
•        Retinoids
•        Bupropion

Others, such as:

Protease inhibitors
•        Didanosine
•        Diuretics
•        Ephedrine
•        Benzodiazepines
•        Interleukin-2

Other Iatrogenic Causes

•        Irradiation
•        Graft-Versus-Host Disease


•        Salivary Gland Disease:

  • Salivary Aplasia (agenesis)
  • Sjögren Syndrome
  • Sarcoidosis
  • Parotidectomy
  • Cystic Fibrosis
  • Primary Biliary Cirrhosis
  • Infections (HIV, Hepatitis C, Human T
    Lymphotropic Virus 1 [HTLV-1])
  • Other viruses
  • Dehydration
  • Psychogenic
Last Updated 23rd June 2010